History

The Great Mongol Empire 1206

The Great Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206 n in the lush green grasslands of Mongolia. This empire had expanded so much in less than a century that the largest empire or empire in human history. It was saved. Mongol warriors were so cruel and cruel that the city, the region, or the empire was attacked and there was nothing left but destruction.

The famous American ethnographer Jeremiah Curtin writes in his book The Mongol’s History that the Mongols destroyed everything, even the cats and dogs, and babies of any region have not been safe from their atrocities since then. It was the fear of the horrors of tactical and full-force attacks that forced the relatively small states to surrender without fighting before them.

Hulegu Khan’s Ill-fated Mission to the Abbasid Caliphate

Under the order of his elder brother, he sent messages to the then Abbasid Caliph Mutasim to accept his obedience, which was not only rejected, but the ambassadors who carried the message were mistreated and Hulegu Khan was killed on the battlefield. Shahid decided to fight vigorously in the Abbasid caliphate.

This decision was a very wrong decision for Probably, which was proven later. This attitude of the Abbasid caliph exhausted the patience of the Khan of the regions and now he is against this great Muslim. Decided to attack the city. In November 1257, Hulegu Khan left for the attack with his army of more or less 100,000.

Hulegu Khan

According to some estimates, this army had reached 300,000 by the time it reached Baghdad. The number was around 50 to 60 thousand. Mutasim had an idea of the horrors of the Mongol army, so he also tried some talks and negotiations during this time, but it was too late. On January 1258, Hulegu Khan with his army reached the gate of Baghdad city and attacked what happened in.

This attack is a part of history. Hulegu Khan had given instructions to his army that they should rob the honor of whomever they wanted but they should behead Christians and Jews. There was a frenzy and then, in the same air, the crows massacred the city. According to different estimates, from eight to two million people were the victims of Halaku Khan’s revenge.

Hulegu Khan’s Relentless Campaign

The problem was that after the massacre, the city of Baghdad was set on fire, and the magnificent buildings, palaces, mosques, tombs, and libraries were destroyed. During this time, Golu also burned millions of books in the great library of Bait al-Hikmah or threw them into the Tigris River. The Abbasid caliph Mutasim was also a victim of this revenge and died at the hands of the Mongols.

Where the Mamluk Empire was ruling at that time, Hulegu Khan did not limit himself to that, but now his focus was on Syria. Apart from a few areas of the region, a large part was still under the control of the Ayyubid Empire, which was defeated by the Mamluks. After leaving Egypt, it was a weak empire. The ruler of the Ayyubid Empire, Nasir al-Din Yusuf, realized his weakness, so he offered to pay tribute to Halaku Khan, but Halaku Khan was no longer interested in it.

Hulegu Khan’s Strategic Advances and the Intricacies of Succession

They only wanted to conquer this area. Hulegu Khan’s forces had now included Charg-en-Armen and Armies of the Crusader states. Seeing that the forces of Damascus and Hamz saved themselves from destruction by surrendering themselves, but there were some commanders in the Ayyubid Empire at that time who wanted to fight the Mongol army,

One of them was Commander-in-Chief al-Din Babirs, who left Damascus. Kur joined Saif al-Din’s army in Egypt. After conquering Damascus, Hulegu Khan’s next target was the Mamluk government of Egypt. Later, the further advance of the Mongols in the Middle East region was halted by the news that Halaku Khan’s elder brother, Monkh Khan Khan Great Khan, was also killed during the campaign against the Chinese Sun Dynasty.

Genghis khan

Later, a civil war broke out in Mongolia between his two brothers Eric Kok and koblai Khan for the succession, along with all the major issues going on in this great empire, the sudden death and succession of Monkh Khan is evident. The battle disturbed Hulegu Khan, so he canceled the plan to attack Egypt for some time. I was supporting another brother, Kublai Khan, against my brother Eric Bock.

Here he aimed to target Barke Khan, the Mongol leader of the Golden Horde, who was supporting Eric Bock in the succession battle. Meanwhile, Khan was in Azerbaijan. He remained in residence so that he could find the way to any possible expedition of Barke Khan against Balai Khan. But the Mamluk emperor Sultan Saifuddin had the heads of the ambassadors penned.

The Battle of Ain Jalut: Mamluks’ Triumph Over Mongol Might

Saifuddin knew that Hulegu Khan was not present in Syria at that time, so he should take full advantage of this opportunity. During this advance, they reached the land of Palestine and destroyed the Mongol camp in Gaza. After this success, the citizens of Damascus also revolted against the Mongols. They then advanced southward to engage the Mamluk army.

The Mongol army crossed the Ardal River and reached the valley of Ain Jalut in the Palestinian region. On this occasion, the coastal Christian states also supported the Muslim forces against the Mongols and provided them with a safe route to reach the place of Ain Jalut. The Mamluks were undoubtedly outnumbered on the battlefield, but their army was neither as disciplined nor trained as the Mongols; however, they had one advantage in the form of their commander Bebros, who knew the Ain Jalut region very well.

How long did the mongol empire last

Apart from being a great expert in war tacticsIt was believed that this battle started in September 1260, then Babars hid some of his army in the mountains and the commander Babars himself attacked the Mongol army at first he routed the enemy in the battlefield, then he defeated them. Kartan means running away from the battlefield.

This is the same trick that the Mongol forces themselves used to do, but they were about to get caught in their trick while retreating when the Mongol forces chased Babaro’s commander’s forces into the hills. The hidden Mamluk army also got pregnant while retreating, when this Mamluk army came back near the rest of his army, Sultan Saif al-Din Quds ordered the rest of his army to attack the enemy.

Ain Jalut Triumph and the Decline of Mongol Power in the Middle East

They attacked, but their commander was killed, the morale of the Mongol forces was low and they were forced to flee back. The historic defeat of the Mongols was proved, after that, the Syrian region of Alipo also left the hands of the Mongols. When the news of this defeat reached Hulegu Khan, it was very sad for him, but he could not leave Azerbaijan under any circumstances because of the succession.

When the civil war was still going on, an army of Gol army in the number of about 6000 came to attack Alipu, which also massacred in that city, but when this army reached Hamz, the Muslims simply killed them. An army of 2,000 defeated them. With this defeat, the further advance of Buchar and Mongol forces into the eastern region was halted.

The Ottoman Empire

The influence had grown in the region, which lasted for the next two and a half hundred years, and finally, in 15 AD, the Mamluk Empire was brought to an end by the hands of another Muslim Ottoman emperor. had gone The defeat of Ain Goliath also marked the beginning of the fall of Mango Lampire, and this led to further losses on many other fronts.

The Mongols Invasions of Japan
The Mongols Invasions of Japan
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

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